ILO Director-General Guy Ryder assures support to Fiji tripartite partners for labour law reforms



The  Director General  International Labour Organisation , Mr Guy Ryder, reinforced through a strong message to the tripartite partners in Fiji of ILO’s  continued support to ongoing labour law reforms in Fiji.    This was the pledge made by the DG to the FTUC’s 46th Biennial Delegates Conference held in Nadi on May 7th 2016. For full video message  see

“As the voice and representative of workers in Fiji, the FTUC plays a vital role in defending and promoting the rights of workers, upholding international labour standards, particularly those relating to Freedom of Association, the Right to Organize and the Right to Bargain Collectively” , My Ryder said. He further added that  “It has taken several years of extensive social dialogue for the tripartite constituents to finally come to this successful conclusion and I am (he is) very proud of the role the ILO has played in helping to solve this entangled and prolonged conflict.”

The Director General  stated that the conflict and  an intense campaign for resolution and justice for Fiji workers was followed by  the tripartite mission to Suva in January of this year.  He added that it was the Report of that ILO Tripartite Mission, the Joint Implementation Report by Fiji’s tripartite constituents, and the adoption of the Employment Relations Amendment Bill of 2016 by Fiji’s Parliament, that the ILO’s Governing Body at this year’s March session decided not to refer the complaint against Fiji to a Commission of Inquiry. ”

He acknowledged  the struggles of the workers of the country and of unions, and commended the perseverance of the FTUC through its strong leadership towards a amicable solution to the impasse in Fiji.

Mr Ryder    further assured the 150 plus delegates and guests at the Nadi Conference  that the ILO’s Office in Suva, the  Regional Office in Bangkok as well as the Headquarters  in Geneva, will do all that the ILO  can to assist their constituents in Fiji in this regard.  His message was received with utmost enthusiasm  and  renewed the vigor  of the FTUC membership  in its pursuit of social justice through the ongoing labour law reforms in Fiji.

  • Ends




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The FTUC Biennial Conference held in Nadi on 7th May 2016 launched a campaign to raise the National Minimum Wage to $4 an hour. While the FTUC is mindful that the $4 Minimum wage will still peg workers below the poverty line, we believe that $4 is a decent starting point to work towards a Minimum Wage that is pegged above the poverty line. The FTUC estimates that the poverty line is around $4.50 an hour. We advocate that annual adjustments must be made to work towards that goal.

The Constitution of Fiji at Chapter 2, Section 33 clearly states “The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realization of the right of every person to work and to a just minimum wage.” The current minimum wage of $2.32 is grossly inadequate and condemns workers to extreme poverty. It is not a realistic starting point to progressively ensure a “just Minimum Wage” as the target is too far off and annual inflationary movements will further make it impossible to realize a minimum wage above the poverty line.

The situation is further compounded by the National Employment Center policy on providing employment for young people. The wage guideline set for attaches is $60 per week without any FNPF deductions, overtime payments or any other benefits applicable to these workers all in the name of creating employment. The reality is that in many workplaces, permanent employees are being replaced by these attaches at $60 per week. This has undermined the National Minimum wage and the minimum conditions set out in the Employment Relations Promulgation. What is happening in Fiji is that we are driving the wages downwards, a race to the bottom.

The current minimum wage of $2.32 means a weekly wage of $96.05 after FNPF deductions. Then we need to take 9% off that for VAT. This leaves the worker with $87.41 per week. A conservative 2015 estimate for Basic Needs Poverty Line is around $185.00 per week. This leaves a massive gap of about $97.59 per week.  As time goes on, our people get deeper and deeper into poverty and debt, yet we wonder why productivity is still low. It is no secret that happy workers are more productive and it is the right time to address this issue.

The FTUC notes the concerns of employers. We also note that some 15 years ago, the Unions called for minimum wages to be increased to the poverty line through the Wages Councils. We were promptly told by employers that the time was not right. The past Chairperson, Fr. Kevin Barr of the Wages Council also advocated the same and was told the same thing just 6 years ago. We are now again told the time is not right. Well, when will the time be right for workers in Fiji to earn a just Minimum Wage. It appears never.

The FTUC understands the plight of small businesses and is receptive to some concessions for this lot. However it disagrees that bigger businesses hide behind the small businesses to pay poverty wages and claim to be concerned about small businesses. This trick will no longer work. Threats of unemployment rising are mere threats and FTUC is confident that if workers earn more, economic activity will increase, which will in turn create demand and jobs. This will be good for businesses as well. Decent work is also about a just wage and conditions of employment and not merely any job.

We recall the promise that the Prime Minister made to the people to create a Just society and that no Fijian will be left behind. So far it’s only the workers who have been left behind and we call on Government to act with some determination to ensure a fair deal for workers. A $4 minimum wage is a good place to start.

Felix Anthony

FTUC National Secretary

Unions Unite


Unions Unite


It is ironic that Attar Singh should make allegations that FTUC is poaching members from his affiliates. Just a few months ago, Mr. Singh when he was unemployed poached 150 members from his former Telecom and Mining Union to form a new Union in Vatukoula mines so that he can remain employed. Yet he chooses to claim poaching by FTUC. Records are available at the Registrar of Trade Unions Office.

The facts are that FTUC wishes to unite all Unions and Workers in Fiji for a number of years now. Talks have taken place on a number of occasions.  However, Attar Singh has made demands that he be appointed Assistant General Secretary which cannot be accommodated. FTUC is a democratic Workers Organisation. He has chosen, as always to put his personal interest first before the larger interest of all workers in Fiji. He has also demanded that FTUC change its name just so that he can claim some sort of amalgamation between FTUC and FICTU. That can never happen.

Everyone in Fiji is aware that the Employment Relations Promulgation was the work of FTUC which at the time was objected to by Attar Singh. The recent restoration of workers and trade union rights was also the effort and work of FTUC. It is those rights that he can now work as a trade unionist if he wishes.

Attar Singh objected to the recent amendments to those labour laws as well. In light of the destructive and his choice of putting his personal interest before the interest of workers, FTUC has decided that it will approach workers directly to organise workers and unify the trade union movement.  FTUC will not waste time to satisfy Attar’s ego before uniting workers.

It is time Attar Singh tells the workers what he has achieved for them and why they need to remain loyal to him instead of simply objecting to everything and anything.  His so called FICTU is his creation after losing 3 successive FTUC elections for National Secretary. The man’s track record has been about dividing workers and still today religiously remains true to his record. It time to deliver to the workers of Fiji and that can only be done if workers are united. Indeed union means unity and one day we hope he understands this.

Women at Work Trends 2016


Women at Work Trends 2016

The Women at Work report provides the latest ILO data on women’s position in labour markets, examines the factors behind these trends and explores the policy drivers for transformative change.

Throughout their working lives, women continue to face significant obstacles in gaining access to decent jobs. Only marginal improvements have been achieved since the Fourth World Conference on Women of Beijing in 1995, leaving large gaps to be covered in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Inequality between women and men persists in global labour markets, in respect of opportunities, treatment and outcomes.

Over the last two decades, women’s significant progress in educational achievements has not translated into a comparable improvement in their position at work. In many regions in the world, in comparison to men, women are more likely to become and remain unemployed, have fewer chances to participate in the labour force and – when they do – often have to accept lower quality jobs. Progress in surmounting these obstacles has been slow and is limited to a few regions across the world. Even in many of those countries where gaps in labour force participation and employment have narrowed and where women are shifting away from contributing family work and moving to the services sector, the quality of women’s jobs remains a matter of concern.

The unequal distribution of unpaid care and household work between women and men and between families and the society is an important determinant of gender inequalities at work.

Statement by ILO Director-General

Getting to Equal by 2030, The Future is Now

Source: ILO News Room


“Let’s work together to achieve genuine gender equality and women’s empowerment in the world of work. Decent work for women brings decent lives for all,” says ILO Director-General Guy Ryder.

Today, as we celebrate International Women’s Day , we affirm that when it comes to Getting to Equal by 2030, The Future is Now.

Last year the United Nations adopted a transformative agenda – the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development . If the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be achieved permitting all to move forward together with fairness and justice, there must be readiness to act now on the commitments of the SDGs. What ultimately matters are the results and changes for the better in the lives of girls and boys, women and men everywhere.

They all stand to gain from gender equality as do families, enterprises and societies. The world of work is a privileged entry point to set in motion the transformations called for in the 2030 Agenda. Yet continuing and unacceptable gender gaps in the world of work persist and are captured with alarming clarity by a new ILO report, “Women at Work: Trends 2016 ”.

The report shows the enormous challenges women continue to face in finding and keeping decent jobs. It demonstrates the persistently unequal earning power of women and men. It lays out the imbalance between paid and unpaid work and between hours worked by each, and the difficulty women have in gaining access to adequate maternity protection and pensions.

It is also of serious concern that despite significant progress made by women over the past two decades in education, this has not translated into comparable improvements in their position at work.

These stubborn challenges raise important questions. How do we eliminate the gender pay gap in less than the 70 years it is estimated it will take at current rates of progress. Two generations is too long to wait to achieve pay equity.

Why is it taking so long to end discrimination and violence against women and girls; how do we get recognition of the value of unpaid care and domestic and other work and the consequences for women’s lack of access to quality work with social protection. What measures can ensure the full and effective participation of women at all levels of economic and public life?

As the ILO approaches its 100th anniversary in 2019, our Women at Work Centenary Initiative renews the Organization’s commitment to promote gender equality and to identify measures that will give new impetus to work in this domain, building on what has already worked. A global survey and research on the situation of women in the world of work will clearly identify aspirations and obstacles to guide innovative action.

Our actions must be immediate, effective and far-reaching. There is no time to waste. The 2030 Agenda is an opportunity to pool our efforts and develop coherent, mutually supporting policies for gender equality.

Let’s work together to achieve genuine gender equality and women’s empowerment in the world of work. Let us engage men and boys for women’s empowerment. Decent work for women brings decent lives for all.

Obama bans US imports of slave-produced goods

Source: Associated Press


President Barack Obama signed a bill Wednesday that includes a provision banning U.S. imports of fish caught by slaves in Southeast Asia, gold mined by children in Africa and garments sewn by abused women in Bangladesh, closing a loophole in an 85-year-old tariff law that has failed to keep products of forced and child labor out of America.

An expose by The Associated Press last year found Thai companies ship seafood to the U.S. that was caught and processed by trapped and enslaved workers. As a result of the reports, more than 2,000 trapped fishermen have been rescued, more than a dozen alleged traffickers arrested and millions of dollars’ worth of seafood and vessels seized.

Until now, U.S. customs law banning imports of items produced by forced or child labor had gone largely unenforced because of two words: “consumptive demand” — if there was not sufficient supply to meet domestic demand, imports were allowed regardless of how they were produced.

Sen. Sherrod Brown, D-Ohio, who offered the amendment eliminating that exception, said Wednesday his office is already asking U.S. Customs and Border Protection to ensure they begin enforcing the new rules when the law takes effect in 15 days.

“It’s embarrassing that for 85 years, the United States let products made with forced labor into this country, and closing this loophole gives the U.S. an important tool to fight global slavery,” he said.

Campaign for Unions

Campaign for Unions

The Fiji Times

Felix Chaudhary


IN a bid to ensure all workers in the country have the ability to join a union, the Fiji Trades Union Congress has embarked on an organising campaign.

General secretary Felix Anthony reassured non-unionised sectors that the FTUC would work towards embracing them to address any issues workers in smaller businesses and organisations were facing.

“We want all workers to join unions or we will help them form their own,” Mr Anthony said.

“We will also advertise in the media to advise workers of their rights to join a union and to collective bargaining.”

Mr Anthony said a team from FTUC visited workers at the Lautoka Hospital on Friday to advise them of their rights and responsibilities in the workplace.

“The team also spoke to them about joining unions.”

He also said he was keen to hold discussions with other trade union umbrella organisations in a bid to further unite and strengthen the trade union movement in the country.

“However, we intend to do this with legitimate unions and not splinter groups who register as unions.”

The FTUC is recognised by the International Labour Organization and International Trades Union Congress as the workers representative in Fiji.

Government, however, has made known that only 30 per cent of workers in the country belonged to a union.

Employment, Industrial Relations and Productivity Minister Semi Koroilavesau said the remaining 70 per cent were not affiliated to any union.

He said they were mainly from the informal sector but represented the overwhelming majority of workers in the country.

Labour Review Outcome


Labour Review Outcome

FA in Geneva

The Fiji Trades Union Congress has jointly signed an implementation report to the Governing Body of ILO. The Report is required under the Tripartite Agreement signed by the Parties in March, 2015. The Report was signed after lengthy negotiations between the FTUC, FCEF and Government. This report is based on the Employment Relations (Amendment) Act 2015 and the other matters agreed to in negotiations. To clarify the whole issue of the Complaint to ILO on the Freedom of Association under Article 26 of the ILO Constitution, I list out the achievements.

  1. Repeal of the Essential Industries Decree – This Decree denied workers the right to belong to Trade Unions to represent them, to defend them, and terminated all grievances existing at the time. This Decree empowered the Employers to impose unilaterally terms and conditions of employment. It created the Bargaining Units to replace Trade Unions. All these rights have been restored.
  2. Repeal of the Employment Relations (Amendment) Decree 2011. This Decree excluded all Civil Servants from the ERP. This meant that Civil Servants had no recourse to their grievances and disputes, no collective bargaining or any rights.The Repeal now brings all civil servants within the ambit of the ERP once again and includes right to collective bargaining and recourse to the disputes procedures amongst all other rights.
  1. Section 75 of ERP amended to include race, culture, sex, gender identity and expression, religion and pregnancy are added as prohibited grounds of discrimination.
  2. Section 78 of ERP amended to include “opinions or belief” at work as a ground for discrimination for rates of remuneration.
  3. Section 79 of ERP is amended for greater clarity and does no longer differentiate between male and female workers.
  4. Section 80 is amended to ensure that if there is any remuneration differential due to any grounds of prohibited discrimination, then this must be corrected to ensure equal pay for equal work.
  5. Section 119 of the ERP is amended to allow any 7 workers in a workplace to form a union. It also allows workers to join more than one union if the worker is employed by two different employers.
  6. Section 127 of the ERP is amended to reduce from 6 months to 3 months the time required by a worker to be eligible to become a union officer. This Section also now allows an officer of a registered trade union to be an officer of another union as well. This restriction is now removed.
  7. Section 128 of ERP is amended to now require 10% of financial members of the Union to request an inspection of the minutes or financial records of a Union. Previously, the Registrar would do that on his own accord.
  8. Section 170 of the ERP is now amended to read that if the Permanent Secretary does not act upon a report of a dispute within 30 days, it would deem to have been accepted.
  1. Section 250 of ERP is amended to remove any imprisonment for any unlawful strike and substituted by a fine.
  2. Restoration of all check off. The Employers will verify with employees on whether they belong to a union.
  3. Reduction of period of strike notice from 28 days to 14 days.
  4. Reinstatement of individual grievances which were discontinued by the ENI Decree and the ERP Amendment Decree 2011 shall be reinstated and determined by the Arbitration Court for expeditious adjudication.
  5. Invitation to the ILO to provide technical assistance to determine the list of essential services and industries.
  6. Removal of the bargaining units and allowing workers to form or join trade unions freely.
  7. Amend Section 191X and 191 BC from the ERP Amendment Act 2015 to allow parties to determine representation of their choice in disputes and before the Tribunal.
  8. Any worker who was terminated during the period of the ENI Decree shall have the right to challenge the termination through the Arbitration Court within 28 days from the date of the new law coming into force. The Court shall have the power to award compensation of up to $25,000 for unfair, wrong or unjust terminations.
  9. Any trade union that was deregistered as a result of the ENI Decree shall be entitled to be re-registered without payment of fees. This must be done within 7 days of the law coming into force.

Subject to the implementation of all the above, the parties have requested the Governing Body to discontinue to pursue the Unions complaint on Article 26.

The parties also agreed that ERAB will continue with the review of the labour laws that remain pending to ensure full compliance with all conventions ratified by Fiji.

The parties have agreed that the amendments agreed to recently, would go before the Cabinet on Tuesday 2nd February 2016 and to Parliament on Monday 8th February 2016. We expect the new amendments agreed to become law sometime that week. Government has assured us that the matter will be expedited.

The FTUC calls upon all workers who had grievances discontinued by the ENI Decree or the ERP Amendment Decree 2011 to immediately get in touch with their unions or the Ministry of Labour to have their matters reinstated.

Any worker who was terminated during the period of the ENI Decree must get in touch with their unions or the Ministry to make an application to the Arbitration Court for compensation. There is a 28 day time limit from the date this matter becomes law which is likely around the 11th or 12th of February 2106.

We also call upon unions that were deregistered to apply immediately for registration. No fee will be applicable and you have 7 days from when the law becomes effective.

The FTUC calls upon all Unions to now submit their log of claims to ensure that all workers come under a collective agreement rather than individual contracts. This is the right of any worker to choose whether to belong to a Collective Agreement or an Individual Contract.

The restoration of these rights means that we no longer need to pursue the complaint of Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining under Article 26 with ILO. Some may argue that the FTUC has not pursued the Political Parties Decree which forbids Union Officials the right to take up political office and activity. We remain seriously concerned and will pursue this matter. However, we believe the restoration of rights of workers must take priority over the rights of Union Officials.

We shall continue to persevere.


Felix Anthony 

National Secretary

Secret Russian arms donation to Fiji raises concerns of bid for Pacific influence

Secret Russian arms donation to Fiji raises concerns of bid for Pacific influence

Source: The Guardian

At least 20 containers, believed to be full of weapons and military hardware, were landed in the former British colony.

A secretive shipment of weapons and military hardware donated by Russia to the military of Fiji may be an “opening move” in a battle for influence in the Asia-Pacific region security experts have said.

The 20-container shipment – sent by the Russian government to its recently-forged ally – was unloaded from a cargo ship in Suva last week. It will be followed by Russian military personnel arriving in the archipelago nation next month to act as “trainers” for the new arsenal.

The manifest of the arms shipment remains unknown. It is believed to contain mainly small arms, but opposition politicians, concerned by the secrecy of the transfer, have speculated it may include a helicopter, heavy weaponry or non-lethal munitions intended for domestic crowd control.

Fiji has said it will formally unveil the weapons in February, but some in the country are skeptical the entire arsenal will be publicly revealed.

The weapons, the Fiji government has said, will re-arm Fijian peace-keepers serving in UN missions overseas with modern weapons.

A significant proportion of the Fiji military is currently involved in such missions. Currently, just under 1,000 troops are on duty in the Sinai, Syria, Golan Heights, Iraq, and Lebanon, and the Fijian government is anxious to maintain its commitment.

UN assignments are profitable, and the Fijian troops themselves earn significantly more money on peace-keeping duties with the UN than while on regular defence force pay. Their remittances back home are a significant boost to the economy.

Confirming the arrival of the consignment, acting commander of the Republic of  Fiji Military Forces, Rear-Admiral Viliame Naupoto said the weapons were needed because Fijian peacekeepers were working in volatile areas “[and] they are using outdated arms”.

“I must thank the Government of Russia for the timely donation.”

Director of the Melanesia Program at the Lowy Institute, Jenny Hayward-Jones told The Guardian the Russian military transfer was “definitely unusual”, but needed to be seen in the context of Fiji seeking new diplomatic and military allies in the wake of its fractious recent political history.

After then Commodore Bainimarama led a military coup to seize control of the country in 2006, traditional allies Australia, New Zealand, and the US imposed military, travel, and financial restrictions on Fiji, which severely strained relations.

In response, Fiji sought new international partners – establishing 57 new diplomatic partnerships since 2006 – and, in particular, deepening ties with first China, and now, Russia.

“For a while now, Fiji has been looking for other relationships as it moved away from the traditional partners of Australia-New Zealand for military co-operation.”

On the Russian side, the arms transfer may have begun as “simply transactional”, Hayward-Jones said.

“But it would be naive to say that Russia does not have intentions. And it will be aware of the perceptions this will create.”

Dr Paul Buchanan, director of 36th Parallel Security Assessments, said he believed the decline of ‘the West’s’ influence in Fiji was terminal, and Fiji’s desire for new partners coincided with China and Russia seeking to project their influence across the Asia-Pacific.

“The sanctions didn’t succeed in hurting Fiji, they succeeded in alienating Fiji. Just as the Obama administration has had its ‘Look East’ pivot towards Asia, Fiji has had a ‘Look North’ pivot, which is really a misnomer because it just meant ‘Look Anywhere Else’.”

Russia has worked assiduously to deepen economic, diplomatic, and military ties with Fiji. Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov was the first senior Russian government official to visit Fiji in 2012, and the next year, Fijian Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama became the first Fijian leader to pay a state visit to Russia.

Fijian officers will now study at Russian military academies, Buchanan said.

“It strikes me that we could see in 10 to 15 years, regular visits by Russian naval ships to Suva. And perhaps in 20 years, China and/or Russian being granted forward basing rights in Fiji.”

“I think this is an opening pawn move in what’s going to be a much longer chess game.”

Fiji opposition whip Ratu Isoa Tikoca, from the Social Democratic Liberal Party (SODELPA), speculated the shipment contained not only small arms and ammunition, but tanks and a helicopter.

“The covertness of getting this across without notifying the public, without notifying … parliament, this is not an issue that was even raised in the committee that looks after foreign affairs and defence,” he told Radio Australia.

“I demand that the government, the prime minister, the commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Force open those consignments and reveal what it is.”

Buchanan said the imminent arrival of Russian military trainers in Fiji raised suspicions about exactly what had been delivered.

“The Fiji military is capable. It doesn’t need Russians to teach recruits how to fire a sub-machine gun.”

He said reports that the Russian consignment included tear gas and other non-lethal munitions, raised concerns those weapons might be used for crowd control of the local population.

Hayward-Jones told The Guardian it was legitimate to question what exactly Fiji had received.

“I think the Fiji opposition, and the public, has a right to know what exactly has been bought here, for what does the government intend to use these weapons, where, and in what circumstances.

“But I also think people need to ask why? We need to look at the broader context and ask: what is Fiji intending here?”

ILO Reaffirms ERP Amendment not Compliant


ILO Reaffirms ERP Amendment not Compliant


The ILO Committee of Experts have completed its review of the Employment Relations (Amendment) Act 2015 and have concluded that much of the amendment is not in compliance with the Core Conventions, contrary to what Government had claimed all along. The FTUC had maintained that the Amendment Act did not address issues that were critical to the submission of a joint report to the Governing Body of ILO. The FTUC maintains that Government has not honored the Tripartite Agreement it signed in Geneva on 25th March 2015.

The Experts have addressed about 14 areas where the Amendment is deficient and a whole host of Sections and Sub- sections of the Amendment Act to be amended. The areas of concern listed by the Experts are:

  1. The Non compliance with the Tripartite Agreement
  2. Assault of Felix Anthony and cases against Daniel Urai remain pending
  3. Various provisions of the ERP Amendment Act including the inclusion of ENI Decree provisions within the Amendment Act and the expanded list of Essential Industries.
  4. Use of Bargaining Units to undermine Trade Unions
  5. Nomination of representatives in ERAB
  6. Remedy for de-registered Unions under ENI Decree
  7. Reinstatement of disputes terminated under ENI Decree
  8. Denial of Prisons Officers their right to form and join Unions.
  9. Excessive discretionary powers of the Registrar of Trade Unions
  10. Interference into Trade Union affairs and provisions for compulsory arbitration
  11. Right of Unions to formulate their own programs and activities. There are some 14 sub sections that need amendment in the Amendment Act.
  12. Public Sector being classified as Essential Service and restrictions applicable
  13. Electoral Decree S154 placing restrictions of Public Officers including Union Officials and employees.
  14. Similar provisions in the Fiji Constitution that breaches Freedom of Association.

All of the above matters were raised by FTUC with the Tripartite Partners. Government failed to act. This report is a sad indictment of Governments insincerity and bad faith. It reaffirms the FTUC position that much more needs to be done to ensure compliance. The report does not examine the serious issue of practice. Compliance with Core Conventions is not only that legislation is in order but also that workers are able to practice what the law provides. This is clearly not the case today. The Committee of Experts has reiterated its call to Government to work with the Tripartite Partners to review all these provisions and make amendments. The Report which was released on 11th January 2016 and made available to government by ILO was not distributed to the FCEF and FTUC as requested by ILO. The report puts matters in the right perspective and should assist the Tripartite Mission visiting Fiji next week in its work. The report of the Mission will be presented to the Governing Body of ILO in March for a decision on a Commission of Inquiry.

The FTUC calls upon Government to act honestly and honor the Agreement it had signed with the FCEF and FTUC.